2 edition of pharmacology and physiology of nitrite and nitrates found in the catalog.
pharmacology and physiology of nitrite and nitrates
Maurice Monroe Rath
Written in English
|Statement||by Maurice M. Rath...|
|LC Classifications||QP913.N1 R3|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||7 p. l., 96 numb. l.|
|Number of Pages||96|
|LC Control Number||a 42004311|
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Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Health and Disease delivers a comprehensive review of nitrite and nitrate biology, from basic biochemistry to the complex physiology and metabolism of these two naturally occurring molecules in the human body.
Well-organized and well referenced chapters cover the rich history of nitrite and nitrate, sources of exposure, and the physiological effects when /5(2). Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Health and Disease delivers a comprehensive review of nitrite and nitrate biology, from basic biochemistry to the complex physiology and metabolism of these two naturally occurring molecules in the human body.
Well-organized and well referenced chapters cover the rich history of nitrite and nitrate, sources of exposure, and the physiological effects when consumed. Nitrate and nitrite are potentially dangerous substances which can have a detrimental effect on the ecological balance of rivers and lakes, and can cause harm to human health.
This book puts into context the magnitude and complexity of the problems caused by nitrate and nitrite, and provides advice and information on ways to combat it. The book then shifts to sources of human exposure of nitrite and nitrate, including environmental and dietary.
Finally, the last section discusses nitric oxide-based therapeutics and how nitrite and nitrate biochemistry can be safely harnessed to improve pharmacology and physiology of nitrite and nitrates book health. The first section describes the biochemical analysis of nitrite and nitrate and its role in human physiology.
The book then shifts to sources of human exposure of nitrite and nitrate, including environmental and dietary. Finally, the last section discusses nitric oxide-based therapeutics and how nitrite and nitrate biochemistry can be safely. Biology/Pharmacology Synthesis, actions and perspectives of nitric oxide in photosynthetic organisms Mitochondria and nitric oxide Nitric oxide formation from inorganic nitrate Biochemistry of molybdopterin nitrate/nitrite reductases NOS, NO and the red cell Purpose Nitrate (NO3⁻), through its conversion to nitrite (NO2⁻) and nitric oxide, has been shown to increase exercise tolerance in healthy younger adults and older diseased patients.
Nitrates. The estimated adult lethal oral dose of nitroglycerin is – mg. Hypotension occurs at low doses, but massive doses are required to produce methemoglobinemia. Nitrites. Ingestion of as little as 15 mL of butyl nitrite produced 40% methemoglobinemia in an adult.
The estimated adult lethal oral dose of sodium nitrite is 1 g. 4. During the mid‐19th century, scientists in Britain took an interest in the newly discovered amyl nitrite, recognized as a powerful vasodilator.
Lauder Brunton, the father of modern pharmacology, used the compound to relieve angina innoting the pharmacological resistance to repeated doses.
nitrate to nitrite by the action of nitrate reductases7, Human nitrate reduction requires the presence of these bacteria — suggesting a functional symbiosis relation‑ ship — as mammalian cells cannot effectively metabo‑ lize this anion.
The salivary nitrate levels can approach 10 mm and nitrite levels 1–2 mm after a dietary nitrate. Nitrate therapy is the oldest treatment modality for angina pectoris. In addition to sublingual nitroglycerin, longer-acting preparations are available to provide angina prophylaxis. Nitrates work as venodilators and arterial dilators, and by these actions in patients with angina pectoris can reduce.
Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Health and Disease delivers a comprehensive review of nitrite and nitrate biology, from basic biochemistry to the complex physiology and metabolism of these two naturally. By Frank G. Slaughter - ~~ Best Book Organic Nitrates Handbook Of Experimental Pharmacology ~~, by penny jordan jun 21 read organic nitrates handbook of experimental pharmacology the use of organic nitrates preceded any knowledge of their mechanism of action or.
The first section describes the biochemical analysis of nitrite and nitrate and its role in human physiology. The book then shifts to sources of human exposure of nitrite and nitrate, including environmental and dietary. Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Health and Disease (Nutrition and Health) Physician Assistant Books (51) Physiology () Physiotherapy (29) Plastic Miscellaneous Nephrology Neurology/Neurosurgery Nursing Nutrition Ob/Gynae Oncology Ophthalmology Orthopedics Pathology Pediatrics Pharmacology Physiology Primary Care Psychiatry Radiology.
Ethnopharmacological relevance: The presence of nitrite in the human diet was thought to constitute a hazard as secondary nitrosamines are known to cause gastric cancers. Materials and methods: Recent publications on the physiology of serum nitrite have been consulted.
Problems: Nitrite is added to some foodstuffs as an antibotulinum agent. Title:Review the Application of Chromatography in the Analysis of Nitric Oxide-derived Nitrite and Nitrate Ions in Biological Fluids VOLUME: 10 ISSUE: 4 Author(s):Anguo Wu, Tingting Duan, Dan Tang, Zhaoguang Zheng, Jiaxiao Zhu, Rushang Wang, Bao He, Huiquan Cheng, Liang Feng and Quan Zhu Affiliation:Institute of Consun Co.
for Chinese Medicine in Kidney Diseases, Guangdong Consun. Pharmacology of organic nitrates • One of the oldest cardiac therapies still in use • Was first employed for relief of angina symptoms over years ago. Mechanism of action of nitrates • In the body, organic nitrates are chemically reduced to release NO (nitrous oxide), a gas that can dissolve in biological fluids and in cellular.
The nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway is emerging as a likely regulator of physiological functions in the gastrointestinal tract and in the cardiovascular system.
In particular, it might serve as a backup system to ensure NO like bioactivity also in situations when the endogenous L-arginine/NO synthase pathway is dysfunctional. In addition, this alternative pathway can be harnessed therapeutically in. Abdollahi, M.R. Khaksar, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), Environmental Exposure.
Nitrite occurs in plants at low concentrations, normally between 1 and 2 mg kg −1 fresh weight and rarely over 10 mg kg − estimates of nitrate intake range from 31 to mg day −1 in various European countries, with vegetables supplying 80–85%.
The patients’ serum nitric oxide metabolite (nitrate/nitrite; NOx SERUM NITRIC OXIDE METABOLITE (NOX) LEVELS IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS AT REST: A COMPARISON OF AGE, GENDER, BLOOD PRESSURE AND COMPLICATIONS USING NORMOTENSIVE CONTROLS - Higashino - - Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology - Wiley Online Library.
We have identified and characterized a nitrate-inducible ferredoxin (Fd) in maize (Zea mays L.) roots by structural analysis of the purified protein and by cloning of its cDNA and gene. In maize Fd isoproteins are encoded by a small multigene family, and the nitrate-inducible Fd was identified as a novel isoprotein, designated Fd VI, which differed from any Fd I to Fd V identified to date.
Nitrates mainly differ in speed and duration of their action. Glyceryl trinitrate acts fast and short (10 to 30 minutes), while most other nitrates have a slower onset of action, but are effective for up to six hours.
Molsidomine, as has been mentioned, not only acts slowly but also differs from the nitrates. Marcel Bucher, Jens Kossmann, in Potato Biology and Biotechnology, Nitrate reduction.
Nitrate reductase (NR) catalyzes the first reaction in nitrate assimilation, the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Nitrate reductase requires molybdenum (Mo) as cofactor.
Nitrate reductase in higher plants is proposed to be a homodimer, with two identical subunits joined and held together by the. --Nutritional Impact on the Nitric Oxide Pathway --Dietary Flavonoids as Modulators of NO Bioavailability in Acute and Chronic Cardiovascular Diseases --Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Breast Milk: Implications for Development --Regulation of Dietary Nitrate and Nitrite: Balancing Essential Physiological Roles with Potential Health Risks --Nitric.
over the past half century, dietary nitrate (NO 3 −) and nitrite (NO 2 −) have become notorious because of their proposed association with the development of disease, most notably gastric cancer (28, 38).This has led to very strict regulations of nitrate and nitrite levels in food and drinking water.
In the early s, it was surprisingly shown that, in addition to dietary exposure. Exposure of endothelial cells to ox-LDL ( μgmL –1) for 24 h markedly increased the medium levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ADMA, TNF-α, and MDA, and decreased the level of nitrite/nitrate in the medium and the activity of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) in the endothelial cells.
The presence of nitrite (NO 2 −) and nitrate (NO 3 −) in bodily fluids has been known for some y studies carried out by Mitchell et al 1 at the beginning of the 20th century established that the amounts of nitrate excreted in the urine are higher than those ingested with the food, suggesting that the excess nitrate must be a product of endogenous biosynthesis.
The organic nitrite, amyl of nitrite, was initially used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of angina pectoris, but was replaced over a decade later by the organic nitrate, nitroglycerin (NTG), due to the ease of administration and longer duration of action.
The administration of organic nitrate esters, such as NTG, continues to be used in the treatment of angina pectoris and heart. Home > Journals > Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology > List of Issues > Vol Number 7, July > Intracavernosal administration of sodium nitrite as.
To test whether reduction of nitrate is dependent on the physiological status of cells, nitrate was added to cultures at various OD values: ∼ (early exponential, E-E), ∼ (mid-exponential, M-E), ∼ (entry stationary, E-S), and ∼ (∼4 h after the entry of stationary, M-S), and concentrations of nitrate and nitrite were then monitored by ion chromatography (IC).
handbook of experimental pharmacology book series hep volume 40 abstract this chapter is not vol 40 by agatha christie jun 28 book organic nitrates handbook of experimental pharmacology intravenous administration to dogs and inorganic nitrite could be pharmacology of organic nitrates o.
Toxicity tests with ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate were conducted on the endangered Topeka shiner (Notropis topeka) to determine if current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.
EPA) water quality criteria are protective of this s from acute lethal and chronic growth tests are reported for both Topeka shiners and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). We have reported that pharmacological doses of oral nitrite increase circulating nitric oxide (NO) and exert hypotensive effects in N ω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)-induced hypertensive this study, we examined the effect of a chronic dietary dose of nitrite on the hypertension and renal damage induced by chronic l-NAME administration in rats.
effects of ammonia, methylamine, and hydroxylamine on the adaptive assimilation of nitrite and nitrate by a mycobacterium William E. DeTurk and Frederick Bernheim Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.
Bioactivation of nitrate starts with its reduction to nitrite, a reaction mainly carried out by oral commensal bacteria. Nitrite is absorbed systemically and can signal via at least three different redox-dependent pathways: nitric oxide (NO) formation (middle), nitrosation reactions (right), or nitration reactions (left).
Nitroglycerin, also known as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), is a medication used for heart failure, high blood pressure, anal fissures, painful periods, and to treat and prevent chest pain caused by decreased blood flow to the heart (angina) or due to the recreational use of cocaine.
This includes chest pain from a heart attack. It is taken by mouth, under the tongue, applied to the skin, or by. Liver first-pass metabolism differs considerably among organic nitrates, but little information exists on the mechanism of denitration of these compounds in hepatic tissue.
The metabolism of nitrooxybutyl-esters of flurbiprofen and ferulic-acid, a class of organic nitrates with potential therapeutic implication in variety of different conditions, was investigated in comparison with glyceryl.
Nitrate and nitrite are precursors in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds (NOC), potent animal carcinogens. Ingestion of nitrate in the absence of nitrosation inhibitors (eg, vitamin C) increases endogenous nitrosation in humans.
Few cohort studies have evaluated the joint effects of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosation inhibitors. Soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr) were grown in sand culture with 2 millimolar nitrate for 37 days and then supplied with 15 millimolar nitrate for 7 days. Control plants received 2 millimolar nitrate and 13 millimolar chloride and, after the 7-day treatment period, all plants were supplied with nil nitrate.
The temporary treatment with high nitrate inhibited nitrogenase (acetylene.Login to your account. Institutional Login Sign In / Register.Start studying Pharmacology - Anti-hypertensives, Anginal Drugs, Heart Failure Drugs and Antiarrhythmics. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.